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1500 block of South 10th Street

Michelle Schneider, 9, bikes past a condemned house near her family's home along the 1500 block of South 10th Street. Like much of La Crosse, the Powell-Poage-Hamilton neighborhood has undergone dramatic changes over the past four decades, as a result of social, political and economic forces. Once home to a neighborhood grocery, the brick apartment building on the corner is now one of the city's 41 condemned properties. About a tenth are in the 90-square block neighborhood, where only about one in five homes is owner occupied.

In 1954, expecting their fourth child, Logan and Marie Brickson sold the converted garage they called home and bought a modest four-bedroom brick house at 10th and Tyler streets.

No sooner had they sat down for their first meal than Marie declared the baby was coming.

And so Helen Fricke lived in the house at 1502 S. 10th St. from the day she was born until the day she was married 19 years later.

“It was the kind of neighborhood that you read about,” Fricke said.

She remembers ice skating in Powell Park, playing kickball till the street lights came on and moms called their kids home to eat.

The block was blue collar and strongly Catholic.

Neighbors — and she can still list them all — were factory workers, truck drivers and mechanics.

Fricke’s father, then 38, worked as a hod carrier, hauling loads of brick, stucco and plaster on his shoulder. When he hurt his back, he sold Watkins products door to door until he landed a job as a school janitor.

There was a grocery store at the other end of the block. Officially it was the Family Food Market, but everyone knew it as Zel’s. The grocer, Zelma Koblitz, lived behind the store with her son and his family.

Like most of her neighbors, Fricke went to Holy Trinity school, and later Aquinas, where the class differences were more apparent. For prom, Fricke wore a dress borrowed from a neighbor.

“We were the poor kids,” she said.

Still, the Bricksons owned their own home and had a solid claim on being middle class.

But times changed, and so did the neighborhood.

Big employers closed or downsized, shipping jobs overseas. Children moved out. Their parents passed on, leaving behind aging homes with more value as investment property than homesteads. New residents didn’t always share the same Midwestern values — hanging out in the streets, jawing loudly.

“It got the point where we didn’t want to be outside anymore,” said Bob Thiele, a retired machinist who bought the home across from the Bricksons’ in 1980.

Last year, he and his wife moved to Holmen — in part to be closer to their grandchildren.

“My biggest complaint — the landlords just didn’t take care of their stuff,” said Marion Thiele.

She doesn’t blame all landlords — for a time, the Thieles owned the duplex next door — but felt at some point the neighborhood had turned a corner.

“We did everything in the house we possibly could have,” she said. “The next step was the siding, but we knew we’d never get our money out of it.”

Neighborhoods in crisis

It’s a pattern repeated thousands of times over the past four decades. People like Fricke and the Thieles have left La Crosse for bigger homes, newer schools and lower taxes. They left behind small and aging homes whose greatest appeal is often to investors.

With some of the city’s core neighborhoods in crisis, people are taking notice.

Neighborhoods were the focus of the spring mayoral race, and the cornerstone of Mayor Tim Kabat’s campaign. The past year saw the emergence of three new neighborhood associations — the first in nearly a decade.

The city council approved a six-month moratorium on rental conversion while leaders get a handle on the problem. There have been other steps taken: public and private fix-up programs; renaming the much-maligned Hood Park (after years of trying); and extending the airport TIF district by a year, which is expected to generate $1.12 million to build affordable housing and improve the existing housing stock.

“It’s an idea whose time has come,” said La Crosse city councilwoman Sara Sullivan, whose district includes 10th and Tyler. “In some of our neighborhoods things have gotten bad. Those of us who don’t live in those neighborhoods can’t ignore it anymore.”

Sullivan is chair of the city’s Neighborhood Revitalization Commission, where she has worked since early 2012 to create a clearinghouse of information for understanding the issues facing La Crosse’s neighborhoods.

For her, neighborhoods are the heart of any city, and revitalization is an effective tool for economic growth.

“They’re the backbone of the community,” said Charley Weeth, president of Livable Neighborhoods.

A pyrotechnics consultant with a degree in sociology, Weeth has spent the past dozen years leading the nonprofit group that organized in the late 1990s in opposition to a proposed north-south corridor. Along the way, he’s become something of an expert on the forces that shape communities.

“You can’t have successful businesses and institutions if there aren’t great neighborhoods,” Weeth said. “Businesses are going to invest in communities where there are customers.”

Growth and stagnation

Since 1970, La Crosse County has gained about 35,000 residents. Yet its largest city grew by just 1,314 people, a rate of about 2.5 percent, during a time in which the local universities enrolled thousands of new students.

That population shift was not without economic consequences.

Adjusting for inflation, equalized property values over those four decades grew by a factor of 16 — roughly 1,500 percent — in Holmen and Onalaska, which benefited from commercial development around Valley View mall.

In La Crosse, the tax base grew just 40 percent.

The implications affect everyone — not just those in troubled neighborhoods.

Karl Green, an associate professor with the UW-Extension service, studied the issue and found that residential property owners support the bulk — 53 percent in 2009 — of the city’s property taxes.

Yet because of the concentration of older and lower-value homes, La Crosse has less tax base per capita than cities like Eau Claire, Sheboygan or Appleton.

While some blame the tax-exempt institutions — like universities, hospitals and churches — that account for more than third of the city’s useable land, Green said that’s not the real issue.

With more than 17,500 workers commuting into the city, La Crosse’s population swells by more than a third each day. No other city in Wisconsin with a population of 50,000 or more sees as big a swell.

“If people who work at those nonprofits lived in the city,” Green said, “we wouldn’t be talking about this.”

Reasons for flight

The reasons for the exodus are complex and varied.

Political, social and economic forces have conspired to make suburban living not only desirable but easy.

City housing — much of it built before World War II — was aging and often too small for modern tastes. Crime — real or imagined — led to a perception that parts of the city were no longer safe. Hmong immigrants and African Americans fleeing the same issues in larger cities began to change the complexion of a once homogenous population.

Years of lax enforcement have taken a toll. The city’s chief inspector recently speculated that 90 percent of the properties have potential code violations.

A lack of planning, coupled with the loss of homes to parking lots for rapidly growing institutions added to a sense of blight in the neighborhoods.

Rural communities to the north offered land and low taxes. New freeways — Interstate 90 in 1969 and Hwy. 53 in 1992 — made it far easier to commute to the city, which remained the economic hub.

Meanwhile, with a growing student population looking for places to live, those low-value city homes were ripe for picking by investors who could easily turn them into rentals, thanks to a lack of regulation.

With virtually zero population growth, the remaining city residents were burdened with increasingly high tax bills. The cycle threatens to become a spiral: each new rental conversion threatens to lower the value — or desirability — of surrounding homes.

“You can’t point to one thing and say ‘this led to central city decline,’” said Larry Kirch, director of planning for the city of La Crosse.

Home ownership and value

In 1970, La Crosse had an estimated 11,271 single-family homes, according to Census data; 64 percent were owner-occupied. The median value — in today’s dollars — was just above $93,000, only slightly less than in Onalaska and more than either Holmen or West Salem.

In four decades, the city has gained just 411 single-family homes, and home ownership has dropped to just above 50 percent.

The median worth is just $129,373, second lowest among the county’s 18 municipalities.

Hemmed in by bluffs and rivers, the city has little land for residents to build new homes, and so with each passing year the housing stock grows older — now nearly three times, on average, as in Holmen.

Rental property has always been a part of the mix, but over time it’s grown — from around a third of all housing in 1970 to nearly half — what Weeth considers the “tipping point.” In certain parts, only one out of 10 residences is owner occupied.

“It’s not having rentals that’s the problem,” Weeth said. “It’s having too many rentals, and not having them properly maintained.”

Today’s society is also more mobile than the post-war generation. Some of Fricke’s neighbors rented, but they stayed in the same homes for years.

Today, a quarter of the households in La Crosse move each year. In some neighborhoods, it’s more than half.


Many of the changes are systemic and irreversible.

Big box retailers have replaced neighborhood merchants, offering consumer goods at prices Marie Brickson couldn’t have imagined.

The blue collar jobs that gave unskilled workers like Logan Brickson and his neighbors a foothold to the middle class are gone, and they aren’t coming back. Today’s workers can expect to change jobs — even careers — multiple times. Families move more often, and neighborhoods are less stable.

Combine that with local factors — a lack of planning at the city and county level, the construction of new highways, a failure to enforce city nuisance ordinances — and you have a recipe for urban decay.

It’s also been a recipe for high taxes.

While those high taxes are often the scapegoat for the city’s woes, Kabat points to developments like the former Hillview golf course on the far South Side and the Beyer nursery at the foot of Main Street as signs that some middle income folks still want to live in the city.

“Those subdivisions fill up pretty darn fast,” he said. “If taxes were the overriding factor for everybody, I don’t think you would have those subdivisions being developed and filled up as quickly.”

But there’s limited land available.

Kirch notes the millions of dollars the city has put into downtown revitalization, neighborhood plans, rezoning, home fix-up programs.

“In spite of all we’ve done, it’s not enough,” he said. “This has been happening for 40 years. Why would we expect we can turn it around overnight?”

Yet he sees an opportunity, as new generations like the millennials show new interest in urban living.

“We have this snapshot in time where — nationally — living in cities is in vogue again.”

Urban pioneers

At the moment, Shannon McKinney and Larry Schneider are the only homeowners on their side of the block.

Next door, bricks are falling off the former corner grocery — long since converted to apartments. A fluorescent green sign on the door warns it is unfit for habitation. The other four homes are vacant and for sale.

Their 128-year-old duplex, which they bought in 2003, offers space — and a decent back yard — for their seven kids. Renting out the upstairs helps them pay the mortgage on Schneider’s wages while she home-schools the kids.

McKinney, who is 41, grew up in the neighborhood, near Eighth and Jackson streets. Yet she admits her heart sank a bit when she went to look at the house and realized it was on the “other side” of West Avenue.

Schneider, originally from Nebraska, said his biggest shock on moving to La Crosse was the property taxes. He pays almost twice what he did on a comparably priced house in Omaha.

“It’s not that we don’t appreciate the excellent city services,” he said.

But as self-described penny pinchers, they’re suspicious of neighborhood beautification efforts. After all, if your home is worth more, your taxes might go up.

That’s a common refrain heard in city hall, and one Kabat knows he has to address.

He suggests incentive programs to help offset the increased taxes, or waiving permit fees for people making improvements — especially for the conversion of rental properties back to single-family.

“That’s really tough,” Kabat said. “We should be looking for ways to help encourage people to do that.”

McKinney is ambivalent about many of the issues facing the neighborhood. She thinks landlords — and she herself is one — get a bad rap, as they provide a necessary service.

Aside from a recent shooting a couple of blocks away, crime has not been a problem. In fact, Schneider points out that La Crosse is still one of the safest cities — for its size — in the country.

“The neighborhood could be better,” Schneider admits. “But I laugh when people say you live in the ‘hood’ … I’ve had neighbors come over and say ‘your garage door is open.’”

They love being close to downtown, being able to walk to the Y, the library, hospitals, the co-op.

“I can’t imagine myself living in a suburb,” Schneider said.

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At a glance: Powell-Poage-Hamilton neighborhood (Census tract 9)

Values for Cenus tract 9 from American Community Survey, 2007-2011 estimates. Tract not identical to neighborhood boundaries. 

Measure Value
Median home value $97,900
Median household income $26,801
Median year built 1959
Non-student poverty rate 16.9%
Overall poverty rate 20.5%
Transience 31.9%
Median age 30.4
Households 1,707
Owner occupied 365
Home ownership 21.4%

(16) comments


The core neighborhood revitalization will really be tough because of all the downtown bars and being in the student path back to the Unversities. Nobody wants to get awakened by noisy drunks every night of the week. Get rid of the bars and you get rid of a lot of the problems. At least tax them more, because when you end up with 50 bars for every library (and one that closes at 8PM) the ratio of good hangouts to bad hangouts gets pretty low.

Comment deleted.
Tim Russell

The rent is based on supply & demand. One would think any capitalist would understand that concept.


A good start would be to not be so inviting for the gangbangers to come here from Milwaukee and Chicago....all they bring is more crime and further cancer of old neighborhoods. Your really think anyone with the economic means to take care of their family would want to live in the middle of crime infested ghetto?

Buggs Raplin

Of course, if you legalized drugs, the gangbangers would be pretty much eliminated from the scene.


Where is the crime infested ghetto? I lived in the "ghetto" in Minneapolis. I had my home broken into 3 times, was mugged and was constantly harassed by gang members. I've only lived in LAX since June, but I haven't had any of those things happen yet, and I live in the neighborhood that people think is "bad", the PPH neighborhood. None of those things have happened to me here. Maybe the crime is worse than Holmen, but Holmen is boring. I will be leaving LAX in a year to move back to a bigger city, and I'll miss the fact that I can walk down the street at night and not have someone shove a knife in my stomach.


Who says those factory jobs aren't coming back? If we elect politicians who replace middle class income taxes with import taxes and sent illegal aliens packing, incentives to hire US workers would suddenly increase.

Tim Russell

Do you think someone other than the middle class would actually be paying the tariffs or "import taxes"?


Why would a company bring a factory job back to the US where the minimum wage is 100 times what they pay people in China. Are you willing to work for a dollar a day? Because that is what a lot of people in the factories in China make, partly because the cost of living is a lot less in rural China than it is here. If you want to secure more American jobs, stop buying anything from China, don't shop at the "big box" stores like Target and Walmart, and support locally made items and local stores. Taxes have nothing to do with it, and Tim Russell is correct, the middle class would have to bear the brunt of any "import tax". Illegal aliens also have nothing to do with it. In fact, illegal aliens could become citizens who would then strengthen the tax base. And, if you aren't native american, you're technically an illegal alien too.




In La Crosse a property owner can’t afford to fix up their property. Put a new $125 window in, it’ll cost you an extra $45 fee for a permit, Put a new $200 door in, it’ll cost you an extra $45 fee for a permit, fix your siding, it’ll cost you at least an extra $45 fee for a permit, fix your roof, it’ll cost you at lease an extra $45 fee for a permit, fix your shed, well you get the point, with all the new fees a person can’t afford to fix up your property. Even if you do give into the greedy slime balls at city hall and pay all their fees their still not happy and will over inflate your already over inflated property taxes on the repairs. I would love to put a few new windows in each year like I’ve done for a few years when I could afford it put I’ll wait till they fall out before I give this city one extra cent, even though it’s costing me on my energy bill. I’d rather give x cell the money than the greedy spend happy fools at city hall!!!! I’m really surprised this city hasn’t put pay toilets in the parks or meters on the park benches and tables or implement a walking fee to use the sidewalks, or a oxygen usage, or a rain tax, oh they did that but called it a storm water tax even if the water from your house drains into your yard, maybe I shouldn’t give them any ideas or we’ll be sitting on the ground and watering the trees in the park after having a few beers, oh I forgot, we can’t do that either can we!!

Tim Russell

Obviously you have not read the article. Too many words for you?


Taken from Americorpsvista "And, resorting to childish name calling is the last resort of the unintelligent." Tim Russell: Why is it that you are so condescending to others who express a different point of view than you? Laxtaxpayer has just as much right as you to express his opinion. I find it disturbing that you feel free to voice your personal opinion on a matter, but yet condemn others for their opinion. "Too many words for you?" I sure hope that you are not a school teacher! Your constant personal putdowns of others' rights to express their opinions is arrogant! Maybe Laxtaxpayer has had different experiences than you. It's also condescending to tell people to stop complaining. It minimizes his point of view and allows your point of view to override his giving you a false sense of importance. If he wants to complain, he has every right to complain. That's his perogative!


Wow, what did the city do to make you so bitter? If you read the article, (which you obviously did not) you would have read that the mayor is working on having those permit fees waived. Also, the city has offered, and will offer paint and fix up grants to home owners in the city so that you can fix up your property. They also offer low to 0 percent loans to fix up your property. If you did some research in to what the city is doing to help the community, maybe you could take advantage of the programs that are supposedly wasting so much money. And, resorting to childish name calling is the last resort of the unintelligent. If you paid attention to how government works, you would realize that the "slime balls" that spent your money like water a few years ago, are not the same "slime balls" that are working at the city now. I'm not saying the people who work for the city are perfect, (in my dealings they are far from it) but they are trying. What are you doing but complaining?

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